|4 Loading and load securing|
|4.1 Packaging and marking|
|4.1.1 Packaging receptacles and packaging aids|
|4.1.2 Unitization and palletization|
|188.8.131.52 Part 1|
|184.108.40.206 Part 2|
|220.127.116.11 Part 3|
|4.1.3 Securing goods in packaging receptacles|
|4.1.4 Marking goods|
|18.104.22.168 Part 1|
|22.214.171.124 Part 2|
|4.2 Packing and stowage methods|
|4.2.1 Preparatory work|
|126.96.36.199 Selecting and checking CTUs|
|188.8.131.52 Before packing|
|184.108.40.206 Stowage planning|
|4.2.2 Using segregating materials|
|4.2.4 Basic stowage methods|
|220.127.116.11 Part 1|
|18.104.22.168 Part 2|
|22.214.171.124 Part 3|
|4.2.5 Packing rules|
|126.96.36.199 Part 1|
|188.8.131.52 Part 2|
|184.108.40.206 Part 3|
|4.2.6 Useful hints|
|4.2.7 On completion of packing|
|4.2.8 Final work in the door area|
|4.3 Load securing|
|4.3.1 General load securing methods|
|4.3.2 Achieving a tight fit using container components|
|and special components|
|4.3.3 Achieving a tight fit by filling in gaps|
|4.3.4 Achieving a tight fit by bracing|
|4.3.5 Achieving a tight fit by lashing|
|4.3.6 Friction securing|
|4.3.7 Securing against tipping and other hazards|
|4.3.8 Securing by nailing|
|4.4 Load securing equipment|
|4.4.1 Lashing materials|
|220.127.116.11 Part 1|
|18.104.22.168 Part 2|
|22.214.171.124 Part 3|
|4.4.3 Filling material|
|4.4.4 "Artificial tight fit"|
|4.4.5 Friction and friction-enhancing mats
Load securing cannot be defined as simply the physical securing of a consignment using friction and tight-fit methods. Instead, it should be taken to be the "Safety of loads and protection against potential damage by loads" and should cover:
Note regarding legal stipulations
Packing of containers and cargo securing in or on containers must be carried out in accordance with the "CTU packing guidelines" published by the "International Maritime Organization". The exact title of the document is "IMO/ILO/UN ECE Guidelines for Packing of Cargo Transport Units (CTUs)".
The "Scope" section of the CTU guidelines contains information about situations where these guidelines are not applicable. This states:
The "Definitions" section defines a number of terms:
In the case of hazardous materials, the unitization shown on the left represents a failure to comply with the General Provisions of the IMDG code.
Unlike conventional methods of loading, closed containers offer better protection against robbery, theft and climate conditions. This is also a form of load securing or, to put it another way, protection of the load.
For all moisture-sensitive cargoes, namely the vast majority of all general cargo, measures must be taken to ensure that the goods to be loaded are not stored in the open whether it be for long or short term storage, and that they are only packed in roofed areas.
The basic requirements for preventing damage and thus protecting the load are:
If these three rules are observed, the container is able to carry out the protective function it was designed for. Failure to comply with these basic rules, however, means that the containers are endangered by their own cargo.
The only criticism that can be leveled at the pallets is the way the straps have been placed and the fact that this has been carried out using steel strapping. The use of plastic strapping and edge protectors would have been preferable. Top marks, however, must be awarded for the fact that the second layer has been placed on top of interlayer dunnage.
This section of the Container Handbook has been designed to show the basics required in order to transport cargo without damaging it or anyone/anything else.
The "Scope" section of the CTU packing guidelines states:
Load securing considerations are an issue as early as the design of products. The manufacturer intends selling their products. To do this, the goods are going to have to travel some distance - in particular goods designed for export. Since the manufacturer has a vested interest in getting their products to their customers in a undamaged state, it makes sense for the producer to enable or facilitate correct securing of the load by incorporating appropriate lashing points. Strictly speaking, the German Law on the Safety of Equipment, for instance, requires the manufacturer to do so.
Since once a load is passed on to the carriers, packing companies, cargo handlers, transport companies etc. the load is no longer in the power of disposal of the shipper, these companies are thus responsible for checking to ensure that the consignment is in a condition suitable for transportation. If faults are detected, measures must be taken to ensure that the goods are made suitable for transport (again).
In the case of hazardous goods, damaged packages must not be loaded under any circumstances. Instructions to the contrary should not be observed.
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