13   Risk factors
13.1 Risk factor Temperature
13.1.1 Travel or transport temperature
13.1.2 Upper and lower travel temperature limits
13.1.3 Temperature-controlled transport
13.1.4 Loss prevention measures
13.2 Risk factor Humidity/Moisture
13.2.1 Classification of goods according to moisture behavior
13.2.2 Measures for avoiding moisture damage
13.3 Risk factor Ventilation
13.3.1 Standard containers
13.3.2 Refrigerated containers
13.3.3 Refrigerated containers, autonomous
13.3.4 Ventilated containers
13.3.5 Open containers and flatracks
13.3.6 Loss prevention measures
13.4 Risk factor Biotic activity
13.4.1 Biotic changes and their causal factors
13.4.2 Loss prevention measures
13.5 Risk factor Gases
13.5.1 Gases in goods of vegetable origin
13.5.2 Gases in industrial centers
13.5.3 Loss prevention measures
13.6. Risk factor Self-heating/Spontaneous combustion
13.6.1 Hydrolytic/enzymatic fat cleavage
13.6.2 Oxidative fat cleavage due to action of oxygen
13.6.3 Loss prevention measures
13.7 Risk factor Odor
13.7.1 Odor tainting (active behavior)
13.7.2 Odor sensitivity (passive behavior)
13.7.3 Loss prevention measures
13.8 Risk factor Contamination
13.8.1 Contamination by dust
13.8.2 Contamination by dirt
13.8.3 Contamination by fats/oils
13.8.4 Contamination (active behavior)
13.8.5 Sensitivity to contamination (passive behavior)
13.8.6 Loss prevention measures
13.9 Risk factor Mechanical influences
13.9.1 General comments on mechanical influences
13.9.2 Stresses/influences
13.9.3 Classes of mechanical stresses/influences Static stresses/stack pressure Dynamic stresses/influences
13.10 Risk factor Toxicity/Hazards to health
13.10.1 Classification of poisons
13.10.2 Dose, quantity of harmful substance
13.10.3 Infection
13.10.4 Loss prevention measures
13.11 Risk factor Shrinkage/Shortage/Theft
13.11.1 Natural Shrinkage/Shortage
13.11.2 Shrinkage/Shortage due to technical causes
13.11.3 Theft
13.11.4 Loss prevention measures
13.12 Risk factor Insect infestation/Diseases
13.12.1 Damage caused by storage pests
13.12.2 Living conditions of storage pests
13.12.3 Detecting storage pest infestation
13.12.4 Types of insect infestation of packaged
13.12.5 Loss prevention measures
13.12.6 Taking account of insect infestation
13.12.7 Diseases
Risk factors are those transport properties to which the consignor should pay attention when preparing to transport a cargo so as to minimize or rule out any possible risks from the outset.
Information in a form suited to its application is therefore required for the control and optimization of all technological operations. The information required for transport, handling and storage operations has also to be provided in the fullest possible form. See for example TIS Cargo information pages (www.tis-gdv.de) (see Section 14).
The following risk factors are examined on the Cargo information pages:

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