13.11.2   Shrinkage/shortage due to technical causes
Shrinkage/Shortage due to technical causes results from stresses arising during cargo transport, storage and handling. The causes are principally mechanical stresses, but may include environmental influences during transport from manufacturer/consignor to consumer. Of essential importance with regard to the avoidance of shrinkage/shortage due to technical causes are consequently the cargo's ability to resist the harmful effects of these influences (packaging) and the stresses to which the cargo is exposed during handling and transport.
Shrinkage/shortage due to technical causes may, for example, be caused by poor or damaged packaging, such as:
  • inadequate packaging of high precision mechanical/optical apparatus, including the absence of necessary handling symbols on the packaging
  • incorrect delivery or mixing up of bales which are not clearly marked
  • excessively weak packaging, which causes bursting of bales and bundles
  • bursting of steel or wire strapping and ripping of wrappings
  • barrel breakage
  • breakage of cases and cartons used to transport fruit
  • tearing of bags and trickling out of the contents, even in the case of double-layered jute bags
  • damage to bales due to rough handling with forklift trucks
  • weight differences due to shortcomings in weighing methods or technology
  • inaccurate volume determination in the case of tank cargoes due to the use of different methods for determining volume at points of departure and arrival.

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