13.3.1   Standard containers
In a closed standard container, the size of the openings for pressure equalization (sometimes known as fan outlets) is significant. The air exchange achieved by them is not as a rule sufficient to remove excess water vapor being given off by a hygroscopic product. This air exchange may, however, be sufficient to cause moisture damage to a product of crystalline structure requiring dry transport. The effects are different depending on whether the product is being shipped on deck or in the hold.
Of greater significance than these "spray-tight" container fan outlets with regard to the climatic conditions in the container are leaks in the doors and roof, which inevitably appear, despite inspections and indeed sometimes only after packing, after an extended period of container transport service.
It is thus important not to view a closed standard container as being sealed against the penetration of moisture; rather, it must be expected that water may get in during introduction of the cargo. A small leak may lead to considerable damage, if batteries are in the container for example, which corrode and then cause further, secondary damage resulting from the release of acid. Every container leak is a further source of sweat.

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