13.1.3   Temperature-controlled transport
The above examples show that many goods cannot withstand transport without temperature control: they have either to be heated, such as many sweet oils (see Section 18.1), or chilled or frozen, as in the case of highly perishable goods. This is known as temperature-controlled transport (see Section 15).
  • Temperature-controlled transport - heating
    If sweet oil cools down, it approaches its solidification point, becoming ointment-like and finally solid. This is known as chill haze (separation). This separation and the associated change in consistency occurs the more readily, the higher is the solidification point of the sweet oils. Such sweet oils need to be transported in heatable tank containers and kept at particular loading, travel and pumping temperatures. Take palm oil for example:

    Solidification range 24 - 19°C
    Loading temperature 35°C
    Travel temperature > 24°C
    Pumping temperature 50 - 55°C

  • Temperature-controlled transport - chilling and/or freezing
    Highly perishable foodstuffs with a high water content and a high level of biotic activity are transported in refrigerated containers, the desired loading, travel and unloading temperatures being achieved by means of refrigeration units.

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