7   Refrigerated containers
7.1 Porthole refrigerated containers
7.1.1 Cold air supply on ships
7.1.2 Cold air supply at terminals
7.1.3 Cold air supply on trucks/trains
7.1.4 Shipping line services with porthole containers
7.1.5 Ships and slots
7.1.6 Prospects
7.2 Integral refrigerated containers
7.2.1 How do integral refrigerated containers work?
7.2.2 Refrigeration units for integral containers
7.2.3 Components of an integral refrigerated container
7.2.4 Fresh air
7.2.5 Coolant compressors
7.2.6 Coolants
7.2.7 Controllers Operation for frozen goods Operation for chilled goods Defrosting Special operation modes
7.2.8 Temperature records
7.2.9 Remote monitoring Systems available Four-wire monitoring Power cable transmission Narrowband Wideband ISO 10368 standard Prospects
7.2.10 Boxes
7.2.11 Future trends
7.3 Comparison between integral and porthole containers
7.4 Trends in the size of integral containers
7.5 Container production
7.6 Trends in the container ship fleet
There are two basic types of refrigerated container (reefer) which have each developed differently over the course of time:
  • Porthole refrigerated containers, also called insulated or Conair containers, do not have their own refrigeration unit. They are thus reliant on an external supply of cold air. Refrigeration units of various types, permanently installed on the ship, permanently installed in the terminal or clip-on units for individual containers, are used for this. (see below)
  • Integral refrigerated containers, on the other hand, have an integrated refrigeration unit, which is generally powered nowadays using a 3-phase electric power supply.
Nearly all statistics on containers refer to the "TEU" unit. TEU stands for "Twenty foot Equivalent Unit" and is used to designate a 20' container. A 40' container thus comprises 2 TEUs. Sometimes the unit "FEU" is used for 40' containers. 1 FEU is therefore equivalent to 2 TEUs.

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