2.3   Shipping stresses - general information
2.3.1 Static mechanical shipping stresses
2.3.2 Dynamic mechanical shipping stresses
2.3.3 Mechanical stresses in maritime transport
2.3.4 Mechanical stresses in road transport
2.3.5 Mechanical stresses in rail transport
2.3.6 Mechanical stresses in inland waterway transport
2.3.7 Mechanical stresses during cargo handling
2.3.8 Climatic stresses
2.3.9 Biotic stresses
2.3.10 Chemical stresses
Shipping stresses must in general be divided into two main groups:
  • avoidable shipping stresses
  • unavoidable shipping stresses
Avoidable shipping stresses are attributable to human shortcomings. Incidents of damage often occur because the cargo has been inadequately packed, stowed or secured or because equipment has been used incorrectly. The CTU packing guidelines also attempt to counter these human causes by providing in Annex 6 a list of topics to be included in a training program for the packing and securing of cargoes in cargo transport units (CTUs), which requires in point 3 that packers be instructed as to the forces acting on the cargo during transport, whether by road, rail or sea. This requirement stated in the CTU packing guidelines deserves strong support as observation of day-to-day practice reveals a frightening lack of knowledge in precisely this area.
Unavoidable shipping stresses are determined by the nature of the transport operation and lie largely outside the sphere of human influence.
Very large numbers of incidents of damage are attributable to the fact that many of those involved in shipping are unaware of shipping stresses or assess them incorrectly. This ought not to be the case as information of this kind is available from many different sources. Section 1 "General conditions" in the CTU packing guidelines provides important information about how cargoes are affected particularly during voyages. Information about road, rail and inland waterway transport and about cargo handling is also provided. In addition, the German vehicular accident prevention regulations (BGV D 29) and VDI guidelines also state values for road transport. Values for the stresses arising in rail transport may be obtained from publications from the German railroad company Deutsche Bahn AG or the UIC.
It is not without reason that the CTU packing guidelines contain the following important statement in the point Scope:
    These Guidelines are not intended to conflict with, or to replace or supersede, any existing regulations or recommendations which may concern the carriage of cargo in CTUs.
In other words, there is no intention to reinvent the wheel in the CTU packing guidelines; much of the information they provide has already been published in other guidelines and specialist publications.
    Carriage denotes the movement of cargo using one or more modes of transport.
The terms "carriage" and "shipping" are superordinate terms covering storage, handling and transport and any associated operations.
The stresses arising during shipping may thus be summarized as shown below:
Overview of shipping stresses

It is extremely difficult to put exact values on storage, handling and transport stresses because they are determined by many different parameters. In addition to the stresses shown in the overview, other factors of course also play a part, such as the means of transport used, the selected routes, the nature of the roads and railroads or the particular weather conditions prevailing during maritime transport.
Protection from shipping damage may be provided with regard to economic viability without consequently being less effective. Effective and economic protective measures can be implemented if enough is known about the stresses to which the cargo is exposed during transport.
As experience has shown and measurements have confirmed, the shipping stresses of different modes of transport differ markedly. Nevertheless, there are similarities and common features which should be taken into account in the following explanations.
However, it is not feasible to generalize about transport operations, each one will be somewhat different and will also be affected by randomly occurring factors. The better trained are those involved, the better will they be able assess the transport risks and take effective action to counter them. Training and quality control are two key concepts which should play a central part in cargo securing.

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